Have you ever thought about what might be in the air that you breathe? Small particles, not just oxygen and nitrogen, can have a big effect on your health.

PM stands for particulate matter, which is a term for these tiny particles that can come from many things, like smoke.

If you have an air purifier or are thinking about getting one, you need to know how dangerous particulate matter is.

In this article, I’ll talk about how important smoke is as a source of PM and why you should take steps to protect yourself and your family.

So, buckle up and get ready to breathe easier with our expert advice on particulate matter and smoke.

Particulate Matter and Its Effects

PM is a mixture of solid particles and droplets of liquid that can be found in the air.

PM is made up of both PM10 and PM2.5 particles.

PM2.5 particles are the most dangerous because they can get deep into the lungs and even into the bloodstream.

The National Ambient Air Quality Standards have rules about PM pollution, which is a type of air pollution (NAAQS).

Sources of Particulate Matter

PM pollution comes from many places, such as fire smoke, emissions from power plants, factories, and cars and trucks.

PM is a complex mix of both organic and inorganic particles, like dust, pollen, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets.

These particles are very different in size, shape, and where they come from.

Most of the mass of airborne particulate matter is made up of fine particles with sizes between 0.1 and 2.5 m.

More than 90% of the particles are ultrafine particles.

In Europe, the main parts of PM10 are sulphate and organic matter.

Mineral dust is also a major part of PM10 near roads.

Particulate matter comes from things like dust, pollen, and sea salt.

In arid and semi-arid places, dust is a major source of particulate matter, while pollen is a major source of particulate matter in the spring and summer.

In coastal areas, a lot of the dust and dirt comes from sea salt.

Particulate matter is made by humans and comes from things like transportation, power generation, industrial processes, and heating and cooking at home.

Particulate matter comes from transportation a lot, especially in cities where diesel-powered vehicles are common.

Particulate matter can also come from coal-fired power plants that make electricity.

Particulate matter emissions are also caused by industrial processes like making cement and steel.

In developing countries, a lot of particulate matter comes from homes that heat and cook with solid fuels like wood and charcoal.

Health Effects of Particulate Matter

PM can affect both the lungs and the heart, and many scientific studies have linked PM exposure to a wide range of health problems, such as early death, non-fatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, worsening asthma, decreased lung function, stroke, COPD, respiratory infections like pneumonia, and triggering allergies and asthma.

Particle pollution is most likely to hurt people with heart or lung diseases, young children, and older adults.

People with heart or lung disease, older people, and children are more likely to be admitted to the hospital, go to the emergency room, miss school or work, or have their activities limited if they are exposed to particle pollution.

Reducing Exposure to Particulate Matter

To reduce the risk of being exposed to PM, it’s important to keep an eye on the air quality and take simple steps to lower the risk.

For example, you can limit your exposure to smoke, avoid being outside when particulate matter pollution is high, and use air filters and purifiers.

The World Health Organization (WHO) says that fine particles in the air we breathe cause millions of early deaths around the world every year.

This is a very important thing to know about air pollution.

Understanding HEPA Filters

What are HEPA Filters?

HEPA is an acronym for “high-efficiency particulate air” filter.

HEPA filters are made of either plastic or fiberglass.

They are made up of intertwined fibers with a diameter of less than 1 micron that are twisted and turned in different directions to make a “fibrous maze.” Theoretically, HEPA filters could get rid of at least 99.97% of dust, pollen, mold, bacteria, and any other airborne particles larger than 0.3 microns.

They are also very good at getting nanoparticles.

How Do HEPA Filters Work?

Particles get caught in the filter’s fibers as air moves through it, which is how HEPA filters work.

There are two ways for HEPA filters to clean the air stream.

The first is one or more outer filters that work like sieves to stop dirt, dust, and hair that is bigger than the holes.

The second part is a “contraption” made of what looks like folded paper.

The outer gauze “pre-filter” can make the inner HEPA filter last much longer.

What Can HEPA Filters Remove?

HEPA filters are very good at getting rid of dust, pollen, mold, certain bacteria and viruses, dust mites, PM 2.5, pet dander, and a number of other solid allergens found in indoor air.

Hospitals often use HEPA filters, which are sometimes called “medical-grade” HEPA filters.

H13 HEPA filters are an advanced type of HEPA filter that can get rid of even smaller particles that are only 0.1 microns in size.

Benefits of Using HEPA Filters

Pollutants that cause allergies can be caught by HEPA filters in air purifiers, which can help people with allergies.

Most viruses, allergens, and PM2.5, which are linked to many diseases and can make allergies worse, can be taken out of the air by a HEPA filter.

HEPA filters can also get rid of smoke particles and other pollutants in the air, which can help people who have trouble breathing.

Pet allergens and hair can stay on furniture and carpets, making the air inside dirty and making people with allergies sick.

These allergens can be caught by HEPA filters, which can improve the air quality inside.

Using HEPA filters in vacuum cleaners can also help reduce the amount of dust and tiny dust mites that get thrown back into the room when you vacuum.

Maintenance and Replacement

All air cleaners need to have their filters cleaned and replaced every so often for them to work properly.

Follow the maintenance and replacement instructions that the maker gives you.

There are strict rules about how to make and use HEPA filters.

In Europe, HEPA filters have to get rid of 99.95% of particles, but in the US, they only have to get rid of 99.97% of particles.

HEPA air cleaners use less energy, but you should change the filters every three months to get the most out of them.

HEPA filters are a good way to get rid of dust and other small particles in the air.

They are often used in air cleaners, air handling units, and air purifiers.

At least 99.97% of dust, pollen, mold, bacteria, and any other airborne particles bigger than 0.3 microns can be removed by HEPA filters.

They are also very good at getting nanoparticles.

Putting HEPA filters in air purifiers and vacuum cleaners can improve the quality of the air inside and help people with allergies.

Follow the maintenance and replacement instructions from the manufacturer to make sure your HEPA filter is working well.

HEPA Filter Maintenance and Considerations

Understanding Particulate Matter and HEPA Filters in Air Purifiers

Particulate matter includes dust, pollen, mold, bacteria, viruses, and ultrafine particles that are much smaller than 0.3 microns.

People with allergies or asthma may have trouble breathing and have other health problems because of these particles.

Air purifiers with HEPA filters are very good at catching particles and making the air quality inside better.

HEPA Filters and Their Efficiency

High-efficiency filters like HEPA filters can catch a wide range of particles.

The US Environmental Protection Agency says that HEPA filters should be able to get rid of at least 99.97% of airborne particles that are at least 0.3 microns in size.

But HEPA filters are even better at catching particles that are bigger or smaller than 0.3 microns.

HEPA filters are very good at getting rid of very small particles that are much smaller than 0.3 microns.

For instance, Alen True HEPA filters can catch 99.9% of particles as small as 0.1 microns, which can include viruses that are in the air.

Either plastic (PP+PET) or fiberglass is used to make HEPA filters.

They are made up of tightly wound and woven strands that make a maze that even the smallest particles can’t get through.

Nanoparticles, which are particles smaller than 100 nanometers, are very easy for HEPA filters to catch.

HEPA Filters in Air Purifiers

Air purifiers use HEPA filters to catch small particles like dust, pollen, and pet hair.

How long a HEPA filter lasts depends on the type of filter, the air quality, and the environment.

As a general rule, HEPA filters that can be changed should be changed every 6 to 12 months.

However, some filters may last longer or shorter, depending on how they are used and the conditions.

It’s important to replace the filter the way the manufacturer tells you to.

Air purifiers may have HEPA filters and carbon pre-filters that need to be changed every 3 months.

Permanent filters don’t need to be changed, but they should be cleaned every so often to get rid of any dust that has built up.

Replacing HEPA Filters

Air purifier filters need to be changed often because over time, the particles that get caught in the filter can build up and make the air purifier less effective.

Smart Air Filters says that the Sqair HEPA filter should be changed every 1400 hours, which is about 6 months if the Sqair runs for 8 hours a day on high.

But it’s important to remember that this recommendation could be different depending on the air purifier and how it’s used.

Wildfire Smoke: A Major Concern for Air Purifiers

Wildfire smoke is a significant source of particulate matter, which can cause serious health problems.

The smoke contains tiny particles that can penetrate deep into the lungs and even enter the bloodstream, leading to respiratory and cardiovascular issues.

With the increasing frequency and intensity of wildfires, air purifiers have become an essential tool for protecting indoor air quality.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are particularly effective at capturing smoke particles, but it’s important to choose a purifier with a strong enough fan to circulate air throughout the room.

Additionally, some air purifiers come equipped with activated carbon filters that can help remove the harmful gases and odors associated with wildfire smoke.

As climate change continues to exacerbate the wildfire problem, investing in a quality air purifier is a wise choice for anyone concerned about their health and indoor air quality.

For more information:

Clean Air in Wildfire Smoke: HEPA Filters Explained

Choosing an Air Purifier with a HEPA Filter

HEPA Filters: Benefits and Limitations

HEPA filters are often used in air cleaners and HVAC systems because they can catch a lot of airborne particles.

At least 99.7% of particles that are 0.3 microns or bigger should pass through a HEPA filter.

But there are some bad things about HEPA filters.

One of the biggest problems is that viruses, some bacteria, and volatile organic compounds that are smaller than 0.3 microns can’t be removed (VOCs).

VOCs are things like hairspray and ammonia that can’t be caught by a HEPA filter because they are too small.

VOCs also can’t be filtered out by HEPA filters because they tend to bounce off the fiber media.

Another problem with HEPA filters is that they need to be replaced often.

Most of the pollutants in the air are caught by HEPA filters, so they can quickly get clogged up and lose their effectiveness.

When the filter is changed, the dirty filter mats can let out disease-causing substances.

Another risk is the harmful byproducts of bacteria that die after being filtered out.

These so-called endotoxins can no longer be kept by HEPA filters and are released into the room air, unfiltered.

Factors to Consider When Purchasing an Air Purifier

There are a few things to think about when buying an air purifier with a HEPA filter.

First, look for an air purifier with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, which is the standard recommended by the EPA and the American Lung Association.

Some air purifiers have extra filters, like activated carbon or charcoal, that catch gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and odor compounds.

The size of the air purifier is another important thing to think about.

Choose an air purifier whose size is right for the room it will be used in.

Consider the size of the room and the air purifier’s Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) rating to find the right size.

The CADR rating shows how quickly the air purifier can filter air.

Noise levels are also important to think about, especially if you plan to use the air purifier in a bedroom or other quiet space.

Check the product’s description to see how loud it is in decibels.

Lastly, think about how often the filters need to be changed, how easy they are to take out and put back in, and how much they cost.

Some companies sell “medical grade” or “super” HEPA filters, but most homes don’t need them.

HEPA filters are good at catching a lot of particles in the air, but they don’t work for everything.

They can’t get rid of pollutants smaller than 0.3 microns, like viruses, some bacteria, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Also, they need to be replaced often, and dirty filter mats can let out infectious material and harmful byproducts of bacteria that have been filtered out.

When buying an air purifier, you should think about its size, how loud it is, how often the filter needs to be changed, and what kind of filter it uses.

By thinking about these things, you can choose an air purifier that will reduce the amount of PM in your home.


In conclusion, smoke or particulate matter is a serious problem that hurts our health and the environment.

It’s important to take steps to limit our exposure to it, and using an air purifier is one good way to do that.

As the owner of an air purifier, I can say that it has improved the quality of the air in my home.

But it’s important to remember that an air purifier is not the only thing that can be done about particulate matter.

We must also work towards reducing our reliance on fossil fuels and promoting sustainable practices to improve air quality for everyone.

When you think about buying an air purifier, keep in mind that it is an investment in your health and well-being.

It is important to choose a high-quality purifier that is capable of filtering out particulate matter and other pollutants.

Also, think about the size of the purifier and the area where it will be used to make sure it works as well as possible.

In the end, the problem of particulate matter is complicated and needs to be dealt with from many different angles.

We can improve our health and the health of our planet by taking steps to stay away from smoke and other pollutants.

So, let’s all do what we can to make the world cleaner and healthier for ourselves and the people who come after us.

Links and references

  1. “Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment”
  2. “Air Pollution and Health” by Stephen T. Holgate, et al.
  3. “Particle Pollution and Your Health” by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

My article on the topic:

Clearing the Air: Smoke & Air Purifiers